International Crystal Manufacturing (ICM) offers a broad range of quartz crystals, precision crystals, oscillators, filters, TCXO / VCTCXOs, and Quartz Microbalance products. Crystal, oscillator, filter and frequency control products - collage
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International Crystal Manufacturing Company, Inc. is pleased to provide a brief bibliography to assist our website visitors obtain additional technical insight into quartz crystal, quartz crystal microbalances, and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalances technologies.

The reference material provided below is a good source of information relating to the basic theory, design, and use of:

Numbers 1 & 2 explain the basic theory of piezoelectricity and contain data on the constants and the mathematical equations utilized with the theory.

Numbers 3 & 4 contain design and manufacturing data for AT-cut and SC-cut crystals.

Numbers 5 & 6 contains theory and applications information for quartz crystal microbalances (QCM).

Numbers 7, 8 & 9 contain theory and applications information for electrochemical quartz crystal microbalances (EQCM).

Piezoelectric crystals

  1. Heising, Raymond. A. Quartz Crystals for Electric Circuits - Their Design and Manufacture Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 1946

  2. Bond, W. L. Crystal technology University Microfilms International, 1988

  3. Bottom, Virgil E. Introduction to Quartz Crystal Unit Design Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982

  4. Salt, David Hy-Q Handbook of Quartz Crystal Devices Van Nostrand Reinhold (UK) Co. Ltd., 1987

Quartz crystal microbalance

  1. L. C. Applications of Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalances; Lu. C., Czanderna, A. W., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984; Vol. 7, pp 19-61

  2. Ballantine, D. S. Acoustic Wave Sensors - Theory, Design, and Physico-Chemical Applications; Ballantine, D. S., White, R. M., Martin, S. J., Ricco, A. J., Zellers, E.T., Frye, G. C., Wohltjen, H., Academic Press, 1997

Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance

  1. Buttry, D. A. Electroanalytical Chemistry, Bard, A. J. Ed.; Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1991, pp 1-86

  2. Kanazawa, K. K., Melroy, O. R. IBM J. Res. Dev. 1993, 37, 157-171

  3. Vanysek, Petr Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Electro analytical Applications, IEEE Frequency Control Symposiumm, 1997, pp 49-55


Call us today at 1-800-725-1426, fill out our contact form, email us at or request an online quote for International Crystal Manufacturing radio frequency control devices – quartz crystals, oscillators, QCM crystals, filters, TCXOs / VCTCXOs, and precision crystals.

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