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Crystal and frequency control glossary

Numeric | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K
L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | XYZ

I

I and Q

Abbreviation for in-phase and quadrature.

Impedance

The total opposition presented by a circuit or device to the flow of alternating current. Impedance is measured in ohms and is represented by the letter Z.

Inductance

In a device, conductor, or circuit, the inertial property that opposes the flow of current when a voltage is applied. Inductance is identified by the letter "L" and is measured in henries.

Inductor

An electronic component used to introduce inductance into a circuit.

Industrial Telecommunications Association ( ITA)

A Washington, DC trade group serving private wireless licensees such as airlines and oil companies.

Industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) applications (of radio frequency energy)

Operation of equipment or appliances designed to generate and use locally radio-frequency energy for industrial, scientific, medical, domestic or similar purposes, excluding applications in the field of telecommunications.

Inflection point

An AT-cut crystal has a temperature vs. frequency characteristic that can be represented by a third order polynomial. This curve has a point where the slope is zero and the slope is positive on one side and negative on the other side. This point is defined as the inflection point.

Inflection point - illustration

Infrared (IR)

Infrared radiation (IR) or the term infrared alone refers to energy in the region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum at wavelengths longer than those of visible light, but shorter than those of radio waves.The region of the electromagnetic spectrum bounded by the long-wavelength extreme of the visible spectrum (approximately 0.7 µm) and the shortest microwaves (approximately 0.1 mm).

InGaP

Abbreviation for indium gallium phosphide.

InP

Abbreviation for indium phosphide.

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Input current

The amount of current consumption by an oscillator from the power supply, typically specified in milliamps (mA).

Input/output (I/O) device

A device that introduces data into or extracts data from a system.

Insertion loss

The loss in load power due to the insertion of a component or device at some point in a transmission system. (Generally expressed as the ratio in decibels of power received at the load before insertion of the apparatus, to the power received at the load after insertion.)

Insulator

Any of several materials that do not easily permit the passage of electricity.

Integrated circuit (IC)

An electronic circuit that consists of many individual circuit elements, such as transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, inductors, and other active and passive semiconductor devices, formed on a single chip of semiconducting material and mounted on a single piece of substrate material. An IC is also referred to as a chip and a microcircuit.

Intermodulation (IM)

The production, in a nonlinear element of a system, of frequencies corresponding to the sum and difference frequencies of the fundamentals and harmonics that are transmitted through the element.

Intermodulation distortion (IMD)

Nonlinear distortion characterized by the appearance, in the output of a device, of frequencies that are linear combinations of the fundamental frequencies and all harmonics present in the input signals.

International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium or International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT)

Organization formed in 1964 with the goal of creating a worldwide satellite system. See COMSAT.

Intermediate frequency (IF)

A frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception.

International shortwave broadcast station

A station that sends programs overseas either for direct reception by listeners abroad or for intermediate reception by overseas relay stations that rebroadcast the programs on shortwave or medium wave stations to nearby audiences.

International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI)

An equipment identification number, similar to a serial number, used to identify a mobile station.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

An international organization devoted to determining standards for international and national data communications and other technical fields.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

The international organization that coordinates and publishes telecommunications standards and regulatory and standards information.

International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector

The Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Internet protocol (IP)

A DOD standard protocol designed for use in interconnected systems of packet-switched computer communication networks.

ISM

Abbreviation for industrial, scientific, and medical applications of radio frequency energy. Operation of equipment or appliances designed to generate and use locally radio-frequency energy for industrial, scientific, medical, domestic or similar purposes, excluding applications in the field of telecommunications.

IT cut

This crystal cut has an improved temperature and frequency characteristic for ovenized applications (OCXO). The frequency vs. temperature curve is a sine with the inflection temperature at ~ +78°C. This crystal operates in the thickness shear mode. It is preferred for ovenized oscillators (OCXO) such as space systems, and Global Positioning Satellite Systems. See AT cut, BT cut, FC cut and SC cut.

Itty bitty package (IBP)

Refers to the round compression weld package used to enclose early strip resonators.

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L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | XYZ

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